He was trying to make it more accurate, a clearer reflection of the performance. On a Saturday morning in , Barbara took the kids to buy shoes. Home alone, free to think about his problem, Russell figured out how to bring optics, digital technology and other disciplines together to create the digital optical storage and playback technology that would be used in what is now known as the compact disc.
The CD revolutionized the music industry, but it was never cool. Even as CD sales eclipsed and nearly exterminated vinyl, the format was plagued by accusations that its sound was inferior, that it was merely a convenient alternative to the LP. As consumers flocked to the convenience and ubiquity of downloadable and streaming music, they unsentimentally abandoned their CD collections. But as CD sales have plummeted, vinyl's sales figures have been moving in the other direction.
The CD-versus-vinyl debate — and, by extension, the debate over digital versus analog sound — has only grown. By , vinyl's resurgence as a marketable product and fetish property appeared to be hastening the CD's obsolescence.
Even purely digital music is now marketed using the trappings of vinyl. Baked into the vinyl resurgence is the suggestion — fed by analog apostles such as Young and White — that an LP's analog playback produces honest, authentic sound, while digital formats like the CD compromise quality for the sake of portability and convenience. Fathers of the compact disc — and many audio engineers who make a living reproducing what transpires in the recording studio — bristle at this notion.
Enjoy smoking cigars with friends, and drink beer and brandy and enjoy listening to an old-fashioned record player. But don't say the sound is better. That's OK. That's a subjective matter. During the process, he especially tried to preserve as much as possible of the deep low end of the band's sound, which he believed was critical to its music.
But when he heard the final LP that was released, he was stunned. Years later, when Ludwig was hired to provide the final edit known as mastering for a greatest-hits package for The Band, he got the album's master tapes back from Capitol Records.
On the box was a note from the cutting engineer who'd made the original vinyl master, saying the album's extreme low end had to be cut out. Of vinyl's inherent deficiencies, reproducing bass is one of its most glaring.
The other is that the last track on each side of a record sounds worse than the first, due to the fact that the player's stylus covers fewer inches of grooves per second as it gets closer to the center. Ludwig's colleague Bob Clearmountain is one of the industry's most respected mixing engineers, responsible for setting the levels of a band's performance before it's sent to the mastering engineer. When Clearmountain mixed vinyl albums for Columbia Records, he says the label required the test pressing of each LP to play on an old, cheap turntable without skipping, or it would have to be mixed again.
Clearmountain, who now works out of Mix This! Not only did records provide only a sliver of what he'd done in the studio but they also came with plenty of sounds that hadn't been there in the first place: ticks and pops. Unlike Russell, not all of the engineers and scientists whose inventions and developments laid the groundwork for the CD were motivated by the quest for clearer sound. Richard Wilkinson was searching for a better picture. At MCA Laboratories in Torrance, Wilkinson was charged with developing ways to record television programs and put them on master discs with a laser beam at a time when few commercially available lasers existed.
It was an experimental project with slim hope of success. But he and his colleagues succeeded. In partnership with Immink and his colleagues at Philips, Wilkinson's team helped create the standards for what we now know as the laserdisc.
Under an agreement between the two companies, Philips built the players and MCA manufactured the discs at a factory in Carson. That was a huge problem. Frustration-Free Packaging. Amazon Global Store. New Used Collectible. Today's Deals. Include Out of Stock. There's a problem loading this menu right now.
Learn more about Amazon Prime. Get free delivery with Amazon Prime. Back to top. Get to Know Us. Amazon Payment Products. English Choose a language for shopping. Amazon Music Stream millions of songs. Amazon Advertising Find, attract, and engage customers. Amazon Drive Cloud storage from Amazon. Alexa Actionable Analytics for the Web. Sell on Amazon Start a Selling Account. AmazonGlobal Ship Orders Internationally. Soundtracks — played on records synchronized to movie projectors in theatres — could not fit onto the mere five minutes per side that 78s offered.
When initially introduced, inch LPs played for a maximum of about 23 minutes per side, inchers for around It wasn't until "microgroove" was developed by Columbia Records in that Long Players LPs reached their maximum playtime, which has continued to modern times.
Economics and tastes initially determined which kind of music was available on each format. Recording company executives believed upscale classical music fans would be eager to hear a Beethoven symphony or a Mozart concerto without having to flip over multiple, four-minute-per-side 78s, and that pop music fans, who were used to listening to one song at a time, would find the shorter time of the inch LP sufficient. As a result, the inch format was reserved solely for higher-priced classical recordings and Broadway shows.
Popular music continued to appear only on inch records. Their beliefs were wrong. By the mids, the inch LP, like its similarly sized 78 rpm cousin, would lose the format war and be discontinued. Ten-inch records briefly reappeared as mini-LPs in the late s and early s in the United States and Australia as a marketing alternative.
In , Columbia Records introduced "extended-play" LPs that played for as long as 52 minutes, or 26 minutes per side. The minute playing time remained rare, however, because of mastering limitations, and most LPs continued to be issued with a to minute playing time. A small number of albums exceeded the minute limit.
These records had to be cut with much narrower spacing between the grooves, which allowed for a smaller dynamic range on the records, and meant that playing the record with a worn needle could damage the record. It also resulted in a much quieter sound. Spoken word and comedy albums require a smaller dynamic range compared to musical records.
Therefore, they can be cut with narrower spaces between the grooves. Turntables called record changers could play records stacked vertically on a spindle. This arrangement encouraged the production of multiple-record sets in automatic sequence. A two-record set had Side 1 and Side 4 on one record, and Side 2 and Side 3 on the other, so the first two sides could play in a changer without the listener's intervention.
Then the stack was flipped over. Larger boxed sets used appropriate automatic sequencing 1—8, 2—7, 3—6, 4—5 to allow continuous playback, but this created difficulties when searching for an individual track. Vinyl records are vulnerable to dust, heat warping, scuffs, and scratches. Dust in the groove is usually heard as noise and may be ground into the vinyl by the passing stylus, causing lasting damage. A warp can cause a regular "wow" or fluctuation of musical pitch, and if substantial it can make a record physically unplayable.
A scuff will be heard as a swishing sound. A scratch will create an audible tick or pop once each revolution when the stylus encounters it. A deep scratch can throw the stylus out of the groove; if it jumps to a place farther inward, part of the recording is skipped; if it jumps outward to a part of the groove it just finished playing, it can get stuck in an infinite loop , playing the same bit over and over until someone stops it.
This last type of mishap, which in the era of brittle shellac records was more commonly caused by a crack, spawned the simile "like a broken record" to refer to annoying and seemingly endless repetition. Records used in radio stations can suffer cue burn , which results from disc jockeys placing the needle at the beginning of a track, turning the record back and forth to find the exact start of the music, then backing up about a quarter turn, so that when it is released the music will start immediately after the fraction of a second needed for the disc to come up to full speed.
When this is done repeatedly, the affected part of the groove is heavily worn and a hissing sound will be noticeable at the start of the track. The process of playing a vinyl record with a stylus is by its very nature to some degree a destructive process. Wear to either the stylus or the vinyl results in diminished sound quality. Record wear can be reduced to virtual insignificance, however, by the use of a high-quality, correctly adjusted turntable and tonearm, a high-compliance magnetic cartridge with a high-end stylus in good condition, and careful record handling, with non-abrasive removal of dust before playing and other cleaning if necessary.
The average tangential needle speed relative to the disc surface is approximately 1 mile per hour 1. It travels fastest on the outside edge, unlike audio CDs, which change their speed of rotation to provide constant linear velocity CLV.
By contrast, CDs play from the inner radius outward, the reverse of phonograph records. The cutting stylus unavoidably transferred some of the subsequent groove wall's impulse signal into the previous groove wall.
It was discernible by some listeners throughout certain recordings but a quiet passage followed by a loud sound would allow anyone to hear a faint pre-echo of the loud sound occurring 1. Pre- and post-echo can be avoided by the use of direct metal mastering. The first LP records introduced used fixed pitch grooves just like their 78 predecessors. The use of magnetic tape for the production of the master recordings allowed the introduction of variable pitch grooves.
The magnetic tape reproducer used to transfer the recording to the master disc was equipped with an auxiliary playback head positioned ahead of the main head by a distance equal to one revolution of the disc. The sole purpose of this head was to monitor the amplitude of the recording. If the sound level from both the auxiliary and main magnetic heads was loud, the cutting head on the disc recording lathe was driven at its normal speed.
However, if the sound level from both magnetic heads was quieter, then the disc cutting head could be driven at a lower speed reducing the groove pitch with no danger of the adjacent grooves colliding with each other.
The playing time of the disc was therefore increased by an amount dependent on the duration of quieter passages. The record manufacturers had also realised that by reducing the amplitude of the lower frequencies recorded in the groove, it was possible to decrease the spacing between the grooves and further increase the playing time.
These low frequencies were then restored to their original level on playback. Furthermore, if the amplitude of the high frequencies was artificially boosted on recording the disc and then subsequently reduced to their original level on playback, the noise introduced by the disc would be reduced by a similar amount.
This gave rise to an equalization frequency response applied during record coupled with an inverse of the response applied on playback. This really needs a reissue! In a discography full of great albums, Wildflowers stands out as one of the most beloved releases among his fans. Either you love them or you hate them, and normally it goes with sheer intensity in both ways. These days, they are everywhere thanks to the release of their long-awaited comeback album: Fear Inoculum.
Zeitgeist needs one as well and needs to return to streaming. The band got the rights back to their Alternative Tentacles releases and began putting out deluxe reissues on their own label but then they broke up and kinda stalled halfway through. Now the reissues are out of print too. There is about a 15 copies here on the website as of this writing, but it would be great to have this readily available a nice modern audiophile pressing. I guess Tom was working on a Wildflowers box set when he passed.
They keep promising it is still coming. A 2xLP reissue is much needed. Read this article and totally agree with you that The Cure Wish should and needs to be re-released.
Robert Smith himself stated not long ago that Wish will be re-released the only problem is is that I dont know when perhaps someone else can verify this. I read this article with increasing bewilderment until I realised what was going on. Call me a philistine albeit one with a substantial vinyl collection but not everyone is looking for vinyl reissues. James Blunt — Back To Bedlam The comments section on the Discogs entry of the original vinyl release is loaded with people craving a reissue.
The reason everyone was suggesting Mellon Collie is because the original pressing had a completely re-arranged tracklist and 2 exclusive tracks and the 4-LP reissue has neither of those things.
I hope that someone could do something to make this dream come true, this album really deserves his vinyl press! One of my favorite albums of all time :. Heather Nova — Glow Stars is one more that needs to be reissued!Jan 06, · the stuttgart postfluxus artist albrecht/d. in an interview with peter küstermann in talking about his concept of " endless music". please don't be frightened by the hertz-drone all.